Aquinas (1225 or '27-1274)
- All life has a purpose
- Meeting this purpose allows one to be happy.
- Happiness is to be found in the love of God.
- God's grace providing entrance into heaven creates the highest form of human happiness.
- Short of heaven, a person can achieve a more limited form of happiness through a life of virtue and friendship.
- Morality is not determined by the arbitrary will of God.
- Morality is derived from human nature and the activities that are objectively suited to it.
- The difference between right and wrong can be appreciated through the use of reason and reflection.
- Religious reflection may supplement the use of reason and reflection to determine right from wrong.
- Societies must enact laws to ensure the correct application of moral reasoning.
- Human nature is good because God made it good.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900)
- We have free will
- There is no God
- Social conformity should not hold us back
- The interests of others should not restrain us
- We should be passionate beings
- Masculinity, strength and passion are the highest qualities in a person
- Conventional morality is a crutch to man